The first two 4x4 pictures were taken on a closed course and it was known that vehicles could get through the water crossing without special preparation.
Enter the water crossing at a moderate speed.
This Toyota LandCruiser (right) is going far too fast.
It risks drowning the electrical system,
drawing water into the air-intake,
and making a general mess of the car.
(As it happens, the LandCruiser kept going.)
Always check the depth of water at an unknown crossing. Clear water can be very deceptive - it is often deeper than it appears. Muddy water can hide rocks and other obstacles as well as being just plain deep.
If the depth of water is more than bumper height,
it may be necessary to make special preparations:
Be very cautious of fast-flowing water which can push the vehicle down stream, possibly into deeper water, or can erode sand and gravel from around its wheels if the vehicle halts.
Enter the water steadily and accelerate. Do not change gear or momentum will be lost and any water that has entered the clutch housing will cause clutch-slip. Keep engine revs up as back-pressure from a submerged exhaust pipe can stall an idling engine.
After a water crossing, be aware that brakes, particularly drum brakes, will be ineffective until they are dried out. This is very important where a steep climb follows immediately after a water crossing - will the brakes hold the vehicle if it is forced to stop? As soon as possible, check oil (axles, swivels, gearbox, transfer-case, engine, etc) for contamination by water and change if necessary.
Go to the
4WD Vehicles A-Z
4WD Toys & Models
History of 4WDs